Author:
OER Librarian
Subject:
Public Relations, Communication
Material Type:
Module
Provider:
Ohio Open Ed Collaborative
Tags:
  • Ocm0132
    License:
    Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial
    Language:
    English
    Media Formats:
    eBook

    Outlining and Organizing Resources

    Outlining and Organizing Resources

    Overview

    This educational lesson focuses on outlining and organizing.  Two open network textbooks (ONT) covering these topics are available at no cost:   Stand up, Speak Out: The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking and Exploring Public Speaking (3rd ed.).  In Stand up, Speak Out, the outlining information is found in Chapter 12, with additional organizational technique covered as a partial mention in Chapters 10 and 17.  In Exploring Public Speaking, outlining and organizing information is covered in Chapter 6.  The first set of learning objectives are addressed in the materials provided for organization of a speech and include organizational framework patterns, techniques for main point and support point development, coordination and subordination of main points, as well as use of transitions, signposts, internal previews, and internal summaries.  Key terms:  chunked, parallelism, categorical/topical, comparison/contrast, spatial, chronological, biographical, causal, problem-cause-solution, psychological organization, Monroe’s motivated sequence, comparative advantage, internal previews, internal summaries, signposts, bridging statements.  The second set of learning objectives are addressed in the materials provided for outlining of a speech.  Types outlines are described.  Key terms:  working outline, full-sentence outline, and speaking outline.

    Learning Objectives

    • Distinguish between organizational frameworks (chronological, topical, spatial, problem-solution, etc.)
    • Develop main points
    • Support main points
    • Coordinate and subordinate (unification, coherence, balance, etc.)
    • Insert transitions, signposts, internal previews and summaries, markers
    • Distinguish between the purposes of outlines (key words, full sentence) 
    • Create speaking notes

    (This Module meets the TAG/OCM 013 for a Public Speaking Course; Learning Outcome 2)

    Recommended Textbook Resources

    Stand up, Speak Out: The Practice and Ethics of Public SpeakingStand Up, Speak Out Book Cover

    This textbook has a comprehensive chapter on OUTLINING (Chapter 12).  In addition, other chapters emphasize additional organizational framework tools for developing main points, and then to using organizing patterns and transitional flow (Chapter 10), as well as providing organizational patterns specific to persuasive speech preparation (Chapter 17).  These all tie directly to the learning objections.  This textbook is available to the reader at no cost.

     

     

    12.1 Why Outline

    12.2 Types of Outlines 

    12.3 Using Outling for Success

    12.4 Chapter Exercises

    10.1 Determining your Main Ideas

    10.2 Using Common Organizing Patterns 

    10.3 Keeping your Speech Moving 

    17.3 Organizing Persuasive Speeches

    Stand up, Speak Out: The Practice and Ethics of Public SpeakingStand Up, Speak Out Book Cover

    This textbook has a comprehensive chapter on OUTLINING (Chapter 12).  In addition, other chapters emphasize additional organizational framework tools for developing main points, and then to using organizing patterns and transitional flow (Chapter 10), as well as providing organizational patterns specific to persuasive speech preparation (Chapter 17).  These all tie directly to the learning objections.  This textbook is available to the reader at no cost.

     

     

    12.1 Why Outline

    12.2 Types of Outlines 

    12.3 Using Outling for Success

    12.4 Chapter Exercises

    10.1 Determining your Main Ideas

    10.2 Using Common Organizing Patterns 

    10.3 Keeping your Speech Moving 

    17.3 Organizing Persuasive Speeches

    Supplemental Content/Alternative Resources

    Alternative Textbook Resource:

    Exploring Public Speaking (3rd ed.) – Chapter 6

    This textbook has a comprehensive chapter dedicated to ORGANIZING and OUTLINING guidelines for speech preparation. These all tie directly to the learning objectives. This textbook is available online at no cost to the reader. Chapter 6 – page 94 – 112.

    Video Resources:

    How to Write a Speech: Organizational Speech Patterns

    This source examines organizational speech patterns in a brief video, delivered with tips from a public speaking professor.

    How to Write a Speech: Speech Transitional Statements

    This source explains and demonstrates transitional statements in a brief video, delivered with tips from a public speaking professor.

    Topic Application Section

    An Experience in Outlining

    This classroom activity is an exercise in extracting an outline from a presented speech The Danger of a Single Story—"reverse engineering” of outlining by viewing a speech presentation.  Time needed to watch the video is approximately 19 minutes, and there are no materials required, other than pen and paper.  Instructions:  Students are to watch the video and extract an outline from the speech, taking notes of speech elements such as the following:  introduction elements, main points, and transitional statements, as well as the conclusion elements.  After watching the video as a class, divide the students into small groups of 3-5 students.  Have each group compare their note-taking results of introduction elements, main points, and transitional statements, as well as conclusion elements.  Did each student have the same or different main points, for example?  Note the similarities and differences in their extracted outline.  Debriefing:  This exercise focuses on outlining, using a reverse engineering approach to extracting an outline from a presentation, demonstrating to student the advantages of the importance of being clear in presenting ideas, as well as witnessing the similarities and differences of the elements extracted.  The exercise should demonstrate the importance conveying organization of a speech in an audience-friendly manner, and so that all students grasp the same elements. For example, a question could be posed:  In the areas where students had differing main points, for example, what could the speaker do differently to improve the clarity of the main points?  The learning objective of main points, transition, and outlining are addressed in this exercise, as well as small group communication by working collaboratively in student groups.  Subtly, the communication concept of perception is also embedded in this exercise, due to the content of the speech.

    End of Section Review

    Summary

    This educational lesson focuses on organizing and outlining for speech development. The organizing objective is met by beginning with a specific purpose.  Next develop and organize the main points that help to explain the speech purpose and then to organize the main points in preparation for a flow that is audience-friendly.  In the development phase, the main points should be narrowed, chunked, united, balanced, and parallel in structure.  Once developed, the main points can flow logically using a common organizational pattern:  categorical/topical, comparison/contrast, spatial, chronological, biographical, causal, problem-cause-solution, or psychological.  If the speech is one of persuasion, the following organizational patterns might be more appropriate for the topic:  Monroe’s motivated sequence or comparative advantage. Once an organizational pattern is chosen, main points can flow using transition or connectives, including bridging statements.  The speaker can also use flow techniques to make the speech audience-friendly by employing internal previews, internal summaries, and signposts.  The outlining objective is to create a map of the speech, which offers proof of integrity by testing scope of content, logical relations, relevance of ideas, and balance of main points.  Overall, the outline serves as speech notes, which can be derived in three different formats:  a working outline, a full-sentence outline, and a speaking outline.  Like organizing, an outline should possess singularity, consistency, adequacy, uniformity, and parallelism in structure.  The resulting organization and outlining should be the skeleton of a muscular speech. 

    Key Terms:

    1. chunking
    2. categorical/topical speech pattern
    3. comparison/contrast speech pattern
    4. spatial speech pattern
    5. chronological speech pattern
    6. biographical speech pattern
    7. causal speech pattern
    8. problem-cause-solution speech pattern
    9. psychological speech pattern
    10. Monroe’s motivated sequence
    11. comparative advantage
    12. transition
    13. internal preview
    14. internal summary
    15. signposts
    16. parallelism
    17. connectives
    18. bridging statements

    Review Questions

    After reviewing this section, you should be able to answer the following questions:

    1. What are four ways that main points should be evaluated for parallelism?
    2. What are the eight organizational patterns available to organize a common speech?
    3. What two additional organizational patterns are available to organize a persuasive speech?
    4. What transitional techniques can a speaker employ to achieve speech flow?
    5. What are the three formats available for outlining a speech?
    6. How does the creation of an outline offer proof of integrity?
    7. What four characteristics should an outline possess in order to have parallelism? 

    Questions for Critical Thought and Discussion

    1. What methods might be used to determine if main points are narrowed, chunked, united, balanced, and parallel in structure?
    2. After generating a list of transitional words and phrases, how can they be employed once practicing a speech for delivery to an audience?
    3. How would you compare an organized and outlined speech to the human body?