Author:
Joan Hayden
Subject:
Early Childhood Development, Elementary Education, Special Education
Material Type:
Textbook
Level:
Community College / Lower Division, College / Upper Division
Tags:
Curriculum, Education, Lesson Planning, Writing Behavioral Objectives, lesson plan, lesson-plan, writing objectives, writing-objectives
License:
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial
Language:
English

Writing a Lesson Plan

Overview

This handbook describes the process of lesson planning based on state standards.  It includes examples of early childhood, elementary and special education lesson plans and references Maryland State Standards.  

 

 

 

 

HCC logo

 

 

Writing a Lesson Plan:

A Handbook 

 

 

 

Kim Bell, Assistant Professor,

Joan Hayden, Early Childhood Curriculum Specialist

Harford Community College

March 2021

 

Licensed under Creative Commons 4.0 CC BY-NC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

The purpose of this handbook is to provide information on how to create an effective lesson plan which is developmentally appropriate for the grade level that you are teaching. Writing a lesson plan is a program goal in all teacher education programs at Harford Community College.

In this handbook we will cover:

  • Deciding what to teach
  • Identifying the components of a lesson plan
  • Writing effective outcome statements
  • Evaluating the lesson
  • Recognizing the impact of the latest research on brain-based learning
  • Incorporating UDL and differentiated instruction

 

 

Planning

      Photo credit: https:/creditscoregeek.com

 

 

Deciding what to teach

First, you must decide what you want to teach to the students.  Normally, this information is obtained from a mentor teacher or curriculum guide.  If the decision is left to you, there are two sources that are recommended for choosing content for a lesson plan.

If you are teaching early childhood students (birth through age 8), you should be using the Maryland Early Learning Standards. 

 

Here is the link for that document:

 Maryland Early Learning Standards, Birth-Age 8

 

 

If you are teaching elementary or secondary students, you should be using the Maryland College and Career Ready Standards

Here is the link for the document:

Maryland College and Career-Ready Standards

 

When you go to the appropriate document, then you will need to select ONE standard as the starting point.  In most cases, you will then select a very small portion of the standard that you will focus exclusively on for your lesson plan.

Example 1:

Our example is taken from the chart on page 15 of the Maryland Early Learning Standards at

Maryland Early Learning Standards

The standard is in the darker area and states “Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development: summarize the key supporting details and ideas.” 

Identifying the standard forms the framework for the entire lesson plan.  Looking at the sample lesson plan form included in the Appendix, the standard to be addressed in our sample kindergarten lesson would be included here:

 

Lesson Plan Form

Topic of lesson:                      Time Planned:

Standard Addressed:  Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development: summarize the key supporting details and ideas.

This standard is broad and sweeping.  It can apply to many different texts, ideas, themes and concepts.  In order for us to continue, we’ll need to narrow our focus which we will do in the next section.  Having this standard stated on the lesson plan will remind us of our goal for our students and guide the path of activities and assessments throughout the lesson. 

Lesson Planning

Source: https://crlt.umich.edu/gsis/p2_5

 

 

Example 2:

Our second sample lesson plan will be for a 5th grade class.  The following is a portion of a chart  from the English/language arts section of the Maryland College and Career Ready Standards found here: Maryland Standards and Frameworks Grade 3-5

 

 

RI1 CCR Anchor Standard

Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

Grade 3  students:

Grade 4 students:

Grade 5 students:

RI1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. (SC, 3)

Essential Skills and Knowledge

RI1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (SC, 4)

Essential Skills and Knowledge

RI1 Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (SC, 5)

Essential Skills and Knowledge

  • Apply appropriate strategies before reading, viewing, or listening to a text:
    • preview and survey the text
    • access prior knowledge about the text
    • formulate purpose-setting questions
    • make predictions

 

  • Apply appropriate strategies to monitor understanding

when reading, viewing, or listening to a text:

    • reread as necessary
    • determine main ideas of portions of the text
    • periodically restate, retell, paraphrase, and/or summarize (See CCSS RL.4.2; SL.3.4, 6.)

 

    • connect ideas within the text
    • make, confirm, and/or modify questions, inferences, and predictions
    • visualize

 

  • Demonstrate understanding, either orally or in writing, after reading, viewing, or listening to a text:
    • determine and explain the main idea (explicit or inferred) of the text
    • summarize the text (See CCSS RL.4.2; SL.3.4, 6)
    • identify what is directly stated in the text

 

    • draw inferences and conclusions from the text

 

 

  • Apply appropriate strategies before reading, viewing, or listening to a text:
    • preview and survey the text
    • access prior knowledge about the text
    • formulate purpose-setting questions
    • make predictions

 

  • Apply appropriate strategies to monitor understanding

when reading, viewing, or listening to a text:

    • reread as necessary
    • determine main ideas of portions of the text
    • periodically restate, retell, paraphrase, summarize, and/or synthesize information (See CCSS SL.4.4, 6.)
    • connect ideas within the text
    • make, confirm, and/or modify questions, inferences, and predictions
    • visualize

 

  • Demonstrate understanding, either orally or in writing, after reading, viewing, or listening to a text:
    • determine and explain main ideas (explicit or inferred) of the text
    • summarize the text (See CCSS SL.4.4, 6; MD SLM 4-5 4A2.)
    • explain what is directly stated in the text by citing specific details and examples from the text

 

    • explain inferences, conclusions, and generalizations by citing appropriate details and examples from the text

 

 

  • Apply appropriate strategies before reading, viewing, or listening to a text:
    • preview and survey the text
    • access prior knowledge about the text
    • formulate purpose-setting questions
    • make predictions

 

  • Apply appropriate strategies to monitor understanding

when reading, viewing, or listening to a text:

    • reread as necessary
    • determine main ideas of portions of the text
    • periodically restate, retell, paraphrase, summarize, and/or synthesize information (See CCSS SL.5.4, 6.)
    • connect ideas within the text
    • make, confirm, and/or modify questions, inferences, and predictions
    • visualize

 

  • Demonstrate understanding, either orally or in writing,

after reading, viewing, or listening to a text:

    • determine and explain main ideas (explicit or inferred) of the text
    • summarize the text (See CCSS 5 SL.5.4, 6;; MD SLM 4- 5 4A2.))
    • explain what is directly stated in the text by citing specific details and examples from the text

 

    • explain inferences, conclusions, and generalizations by citing appropriate details and examples from the text

 

 

 

For this example, we have chosen to look specifically at English Language Arts.

First, you need to identify the standard.  The standard is located at the top of the chart.

RI1 CCR Anchor Standard

Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

 

Looking at the sample lesson plan form included in the Appendix, the standard to be addressed in this lesson for Grade 5 would be included here:

Lesson Plan Form

Topic of lesson:                      Time Planned:

Standard Addressed:  Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it, cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

 

Lesson objectives

After the standard is established, the direction of the lesson becomes clearer, but the focus needs to be narrowed.  Standards are very broad ideas that encompass a multitude of concepts and skills to be mastered over time by the students.  Our lesson plan now needs a very specific objective to be accomplished today (or maybe in a couple of lessons).

Lesson objectives are statements describing what students should know and BE ABLE TO DO at the end of the lesson.  Most lesson plans should have one or two lesson objectives.  Remember, you must write your lesson objectives based on either the Maryland Early Learning Standards or the Maryland College and Career Ready Standards unless your mentor teacher tells you otherwise.  In most cases, you are choosing just a small part of the broad standard to focus on during your lesson.  Many times you can use the verbiage from the standards list you chose.  In our kindergarten example above, take a look at the kindergarten column on the standard chart we use used previously. 

 Maryland Early Learning Standards

We can refer to the Key Ideas and Details in the chart as our lesson objective With prompting and support, students will identify the main topic and retell key details of a text. This is an objective which a teacher could easily use as a specific lesson objective. It is narrow enough and easily measured by the end of a class period.  While every student may not master it in that time frame, it will give us data on which to plan future lessons. It will appear in our sample lesson plan here:

Lesson objective: Students will identify the main topic and retell key details of a text with prompting and support.

 

In our Grade 5 example, you can see that in the Grade 5 column, there are MANY skills listed in the column under the VERY broad standard.   In this case, we will need to choose one small skill from the column to become our lesson objective. 

Here is one small benchmark taken from the Grade 5 column that could be a lesson objective for today’s lesson.

Grade 5 students:

RI1 Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (SC, 5)

Essential Skills and Knowledge

  • Apply appropriate strategies before reading, viewing, or listening to a text:
    • preview and survey the text
    • access prior knowledge about the text
    • formulate purpose-setting questions
    • make predictions when reading, viewing or listening to a text
  • Apply appropriate strategies to monitor understanding

    • reread as necessary

    • determine main ideas of portions of the text
    • periodically restate, retell, paraphrase, summarize, and/or synthesize information (See CCSS SL.5.4, 6.)
    • connect ideas within the text
    • make, confirm, and/or modify questions, inferences, and predictions
    • visualize

 

 

 

It would appear on our lesson plan as this:

Lesson Objective:  Students will determine main ideas of portions of the text

Writing your own lesson objectives

Lesson objectives must be measured to be sure they are met.  This provides the teacher with the knowledge that each child has mastered the skill or concept taught and is ready to move on to the next objective.   When you write lesson objectives, using verbs will ensure that you are establishing performance-based expectations for the students. 

Here are a few examples of effective lesson objectives.  Identify the verb in each lesson objective.

  1. Students will sort coins into two groups:  pennies and nickels
  2. Students will label the parts of a pumpkin.
  3. Students will identify the main character and the setting in the story, The Snowy Day.
  4. Students will sequence the key details in the story, The Snowy Day.
  5. Students will describe the difference between two farm animals.

Each of these verbs indicates an action that can be seen and measured.  They are skills that students will be able to demonstrate to indicate mastery of the concept. 

Bloom’s Taxonomy is a great tool to help teachers select words to use as they write effective lesson objectives.

 

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy is a classification of the different objectives and skills that educators set for their students (lesson objectives). The taxonomy was proposed in 1956 by Benjamin Bloom, an educational psychologist at the University of Chicago.

Bloom's Taxonomy

                        Source: https://tips.uark.edu/using-blooms-taxonomy/

 

The Appendix contains a listing of common verbs used in writing lesson objectives.  They are organized in the same manner as the graphic with each hierarchy (difficulty of mastery) represented.  Here are some additional resources on Bloom’s Taxonomy

https://learning.northeastern.edu/course-learning-outcomes/

https://www.scholastic.com/teachers/blog-posts/meghan-everette/17-18/The-Hidden-Power-of-Learning-Objectives/

 

Writing the body of the lesson plan

The major parts of an effective lesson plan include the following elements:

Motivation (Introduction)

Development (Planned Procedure, Guided learning, Individual practice)

Closure/Assessment

 

Motivation

Once you have written the lesson objective, you are ready to plan the motivation.  The purpose of the motivation portion of the lesson is to generate interest in the lesson topic. This is also a great opportunity to access the student’s prior knowledge about the subject or topic of the lesson.  Usually, the motivation is a very short activity (2-3 minutes) for younger children and can be longer for older students depending on the topic and activity.

Here are some examples of motivation activities.

  • Create a K-W-L- chart
  • Sing a song related to the lesson topic
  • Share a poem or finger play related to the lesson topic
  • Bring in an interesting item for the students to examine which is related to the lesson topic
  • Show an interesting picture to discuss which is related to the lesson topic
  • Have a “grab bag” of items where students “guess” how the items are related to the lesson topic
  • Show a short clip of a You tube video if appropriate to the lesson topic.

 

 

 In our example kindergarten lesson plan, we have many options for motivation.  Our lesson objective is related to text, so we’ll need to choose something to read.  We’ll use If you Give a Moose a Muffin by Laura NumeroffThis provides us with several ideas for motivation.  We could have the children describe a moose or show them a video clip about a moose.  We could ask the children about their favorite flavors of muffins or have them vote on their favorite of three predetermined choices.  We could discuss other books they have read by Laura Numeroff.  For our purposes, we will ask them to predict what they think will happen when you give a moose a muffin and write their responses.  It will go into our lesson plan like this:

Motivation:  The children will sit on the carpet.  Teacher will show them the cover of the book, If you Give a Moose a Muffin, and ask: 

Does anyone know the title of this book?  (restate the title it is given correctly or give title if not)

Have any of you ever given a moose a muffin? 

What do you think might happen if you gave a moose a muffin?  (record answers on a flip chart, white board, etc. as given.  Save for later)

Introduce the book.  (4 minutes)

 

 

In our 5th grade plan, our lesson is part of a science unit on sharks.  Today’s lesson will be reading an article on shark teeth, so our motivation activity can help us determine what the students already know about shark teeth using a KWL chart, showing shark teeth or jaw, watching a short video about sharks, or recalling information from a previous lesson about sharks.  For our lesson, we will have students work together to complete a KWL chart.  It will go into our lesson plan like this:

Motivation:  The teacher will introduce today’s topic and ask students to work in the table groups to complete a KWL chart on shark teeth.  (5-7 minutes)

KWL chart

Untitled Photo taken by Multilingual Mania on June 10, 2011 from Flickr

 

Development/planned procedure

After the motivation activity, you are ready to plan the longest and most detailed portion of your lesson. The time frame for this portion of the lesson will depend on the age/grade level of the students.  The range can be from 10 minutes (very young children) to 30 minutes (middle school/high school)

The development/planned procedure should contain a very detailed list of ALL the specific activities that will take place during the lesson. 

You may begin this portion of the lesson with direct teaching.  As the lesson progresses, you may incorporate guided learning, exploration, discovery, problem solving, and application.

The lesson should always have opportunities for students to “DO” something.  Active learning should be built into EVERY lesson plan.  Students can work in a small group, with a partner, or individually. Students should NOT be sitting still and listening to the teacher for the entire lesson. 

The following chart and videos describe the “active learning” portion of the lesson and the language that is commonly used.

 

If you are teaching early childhood students (birth through age 8)

I do

We do

You do

The gradual release of responsibility (also known as I do, we do, you do) is a teaching strategy that includes demonstration, prompt, and practice.  At the beginning of a lesson or when new material is being introduced, the teacher has a prominent role in the delivery of the content. This is the “I do” phase. But as the student acquires the new information and skills, the responsibility of learning shifts from teacher-directed instruction to student processing activities. In the “We do” phase of learning, the teacher continues to model, question, prompt and cue students; but as student move into the “You do” phases, they rely more on themselves and less on the teacher to complete the learning task (Levy, 2007). 

https://strategiesforspecialinterventions.weebly.com/i-do-we-do-you-do.html

 

Here are two examples on the “I do, We do, You do” strategy.  The first from Teach for Life is an explanation of the strategy while the second from Literacy Alive! takes place in a 4th grade classroom. 

I Do, You Do, We Do

I Do, You Do, We Do 2

 

In our kindergarten lesson, the activity would be the part of the lesson where the children become involved in the reading and work to identify the main topic and retell key details of a text with prompting and support (as stated in our lesson objective).  Our choices of activities must point back to that lesson objective and flow in an organized manner following the I Do, You Do, We Do model.  After reading the book to the children, we could have them complete an activity where they recall the details of what happened when the moose was given a muffin.  They could work together to complete a sequencing activity based on the book.  Or they could draw or write their own version of what might happen if they had given the moose a muffin at their house.  For our lesson, we will complete a sequencing activity following the I do, we do, you do model.  It will appear in our lesson plan form like this:

 

Activity: (15-20 minutes)

  1. Teacher will introduce the book with the title, author, and illustrator.
  2. Teacher will read the book prompting children to anticipate the next step of the moose’s adventures.
  3. After reading, teacher and students will recall the places and objects the moose encountered throughout the book.  A student will place the corresponding picture on the board as each is recalled.
  4. Teacher will lead the students through arranging the pictures in correct order as they appeared in the book (not every spot/item needs to be included- limit of 5-6)
  5. Students will review the sequence with the teacher.
  6. Teacher will introduce the cutting/sequencing activity.
  7. Students will work to cut out pictures on a prepared handout and glue them in the appropriate place on a sequence chart to complete the circular story.

 

A similar strategy is effective when teaching students who are in elementary grades and older.  This technique, called Guided Practice, provides the scaffolding students need to complete the task and meet the lesson objectives for the lesson.  Monitoring and feedback from the teacher assists students who need more help and provides the teacher with data to assess student understanding of the objectives. 

If you are teaching elementary, middle school, or high school

Modeling

Guided Practice

Independent Practice

Guided practice involves modeling and feedback at each step in the skill being taught. Independent practice occurs only when the guided practice indicates that students are ready to execute the skill independentlyIndependent practice 

takes place in the classroom and involves immediate feedback from the teacher

 

The graphic that follows shows the progression through the steps of guided practice and the gradual release of responsibility for learning from the teacher to the student. 

Gradual Release of Responsibilty

Source: https://www.thinkport.org/grr/in-action.html

 

The following video from Getty Museum shows the progression from guided practice to independent practice in a secondary classroom.

I Do, You Do, We Do

 

In our 5th grade lesson, our activity will be centered on reading a story about shark’s teeth, titled Terrifying Teeth.  Our lesson plan will include the sequence of steps that will take the class through the reading and follow-up activities.  In order to address the objective of determining main ideas of portions of the text, students could read silently and circle the main ideas as they read.  A discussion of those main points could follow.  Alternatively, the class could read out loud and each student indicate the main idea individually or along with the teacher as a group.  This same activity could be done in small groups.  Realistically, that choice will depend on the teacher’s understanding of the students’ ability to understand the information and identify main ideas based on previous performance.  For our lesson plan, we will follow the guided practice model as explained here:

Activity: (20-30 minutes)

  1. Teacher will introduce the reading, Terrifying Teeth, Scholastic Books, April 21, 2020.
  2. Teacher will review the concept of main idea and have discuss the main idea of the article as evidenced by the title. 
  3. A student will volunteer to read the first paragraph.
  4. Teacher will ask for volunteer to identify the main idea in that paragraph.  Once identified, teacher will circle it on the projected copy.  Students will do the same on theirs. Teacher will circulate to check for understanding.
  5. Students will then silently read and continue to circle the main ideas.
  6. After reading, students will work in groups to verify their main ideas with each other. 

 

Individualized Instruction

Teachers also need to plan for individualized instruction.  Each student in the classroom learns a little differently and those differences need to be taken into consideration when planning a lesson.  If there are individual needs related to accommodations, assistance, grouping, modifications in materials or lesson objectives, etc. they should be noted in this section.  For our kindergarten lesson, we might have a student who needs extra help with cutting in the form of special scissors or an aide to help with the processing of directions. 

In our 5th grade lesson, some students may require an additional adult to help with reading.  These notations are especially important if someone other than the regular teacher is going to be working with the students for the lesson.

Materials

A list of needed materials should also be included in the lesson plan. Be sure to consider all required materials that the teacher will need and that the students will need.  For example, if a teacher is reading a story as part of the motivation, list the title/author of the specific book. If the teacher will be modeling a skill using items, those items need to be listed in the materials section.  If children will need scissors and glue sticks, these items should also be listed in the materials section of the lesson plan. Materials may also include a PowerPoint, websites, or special equipment.  This section is very helpful if the lesson will be taught by someone else or again in the future. 

For our lesson, we’ll list the materials needed in our lesson plan here:

Kindergarten 

Materials: 

  • book- If You Give a Moose a Muffin by Laura Numeroff
  • Pictures of key points of the book- muffin, jar of jam, sweater, needle and thread, sock puppet, paint and brush, sheet, ghost, bar of soap, blackberry bushes
  • Sequencing worksheet
  • Scissors
  • Glue sticks
  • Crayons

 

Fifth Grade

Materials:

 

Closure

The purpose of the closure is to “wrap up” the lesson.  This is a great opportunity to REVIEW key concepts, vocabulary, or skills that were presented in the lesson.  This is also when several students can share the work they did during the lesson.  The closure is also generally another short activity (3-4 minutes).

The following are some examples of closure activities:

  • A short song, poem, or finger play related to the lesson topic.
  • If a K-W-L chart was constructed at the beginning of the lesson, the L section (what did we learn) should be completed as part of the closure.
  • Two or three students could demonstrate a skill that was covered in the lesson
  • Teachers could ask “thumbs up, thumbs down” questions related to the content of the lesson OR related to the student’s level of comfort and /or level of understanding

Our kindergarten lesson’s closure can be a show and tell of completed charts and a review of the main points of the book, a discussion where the students recall the main ideas of the story or a vote for the favorite stop on the adventure.  We are going to revisit our motivation activity as our closure for our lesson.  It will appear on the lesson plan here:

Closure: Teacher will direct students’ attention to the list generated at the beginning of the lesson where children predicted the activities in the book.  They will review each and give a thumbs up or thumbs down if that prediction was correct.  

The 5th grade closure can wrap up the lesson with a graphic organizer where they list the main ideas and later use it to add details given.  They could list the main ideas on the board or they could clarify why some of the main ideas that were identified by students were incorrect.  We will complete a graphic organizer.  It will appear in our lesson plan like this:

Closure:  Students will complete a main idea graphic organizer.

 

Assessment

Assessment is often incorporated into the closure portion of the lesson.  Assessment is necessary to determine if the lesson objective was achieved by the learners.  We call this type of assessment formative assessment.

 

The following chart lists some examples of formative assessment strategies.

conferences

“I learned” statements

peer evaluations

cooperative learning activities

journal entries

oral presentations

demonstrations

K-W-L charts

learning logs

exit tickets

interviews

response groups

graphic organizers

self-evaluations

oral attitude surveys

https://www.slideserve.com/dysis/formative-assessments

 

In many cases, opportunities for assessments are woven into the lesson in several places.  In our kindergarten lesson, there are a few opportunities for the teacher to assess the students’ understanding of the lesson objective.  The students’ recall of the main points of the book can be seen in discussion and in the sequencing activity.  The closure activity gives the teacher a chance to see each child’s retention of the major points of the book by giving a thumbs up or thumbs down.  Remember our lesson objective- Students will identify the main topic and retell key details of a text with prompting and support.  All activities should support this objective and be able to be measured through the assessment.  Our lesson plan includes the assessment here:

Assessment:

  • Responses in discussion (both large group and individual)
  • Completing the sequencing graphic organizer

 

 The 5th grade activity allows the teacher to assess reading fluency and vocabulary understanding during the class.  The two written activities allow for assessing each student’s ability to identify the main ideas in the reading (our primary objective).  The assessment would appear in our lesson plan like this:

 

Assessment:

  • Circling main ideas
  • Completing the graphic organizer

 

 

 

Self-Evaluation

 

An important part of every lesson is the reflection that takes place after the lesson has been taught.  This is a time to assess if it met your expectations, if the students were successful and if the activities in the lesson addressed the lesson objective.  There is a section of the lesson plan where you can jot your thoughts about good points, parts that didn’t work and the changes needed.  It’s always a good idea to do that soon after teaching the lesson so the thoughts aren’t forgotten with time. 

The following is a partial list of questions to consider when evaluating a lesson. 

A more complete list appears in the Appendix.

  1. What went well in this lesson? Why?
  2. What problems did I experience? Why?
  3. Was it “student centered”? Should it have been?
  4. Did the students meet the objective?
  5. What could I have done differently?

 

 

Data Collected

This portion of the lesson plan is a place for any information that the teacher has observed which should be recorded.  This could include evidence of understanding or that a child is struggling with the concepts or skills addressed in the lesson.  In our kindergarten lesson, it could be names of children who struggled with the sequencing or who moved especially quickly through the activity.  In our 5th grade, the teacher may note vocabulary words to revisit or questions students had that may become a topic for another lesson. 

Gradebook

untitled photo, licensed under Creative Commons CC-BY by Zack Hawkins taken December 13, 2007 from Flickr

 

Other considerations when lesson planning

Is my lesson plan developmentally appropriate?

 

Developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) is a fundamental concept in early childhood education.  Essentially, a lesson plan must be age appropriate.  This means that a lesson must be “challenging but achievable” for a particular age or grade level.  It needs to be planned with the knowledge of developmental needs and abilities of the age or grade level.  Each lesson plan must also be individually appropriate.  This means that the lesson is flexible enough to meet a variety of student abilities, needs, and interests.  Finally, each lesson plan must be culturally appropriate.  This means that lessons can be adapted to reflect a child’s home culture.

 

Teachers and childcare professionals who successfully implement (DAP) in their learning environments create spaces for children to grow, learn, interact, play, and develop in educationally and culturally rich settings. Curricular decisions are based on proven principles of child development, as well as knowledge of effective early learning practices. Curriculum is designed with each child’s individual needs and interests in mind and is focused on helping all children successfully meet developmental goals within the school’s conceptual framework. Good curriculum allows for the flexibility needed to individualize the activities while still meeting mandated standards. (Hayden and Hutton, 2021)

For more information on integrating DAP in your classroom, refer to this publication:

            https://most.oercommons.org/courseware/lesson/404/student/  

 

 

Does my lesson plan include differentiation?

Each student is a unique individual.  We do not expect all students to learn the same way.  Differentiating instruction means that we implement a variety of instructional strategies so that all students can be successful.

There are four ways to differentiate instruction.

  1. Content of the lesson may need to be modified for some students.  Some students may have a strong background in the lesson topic, while others may not. 
  2. Students generally have a preferred learning style.  We can be intentional in creating activities for visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learners.
  3. Students need to be given options for demonstrating mastery of the lesson objective.
  4. Students are more successful in a flexible learning environment.  The environment should allow for individual workspaces, group workspaces, movement, and comfort.

Source: https://resilienteducator.com/classroom-resources/examples-of-differentiated-instruction/

 

 

There are many ways to differentiate instruction.  Watch this short conversation produced by Education Week between two educators who discuss several easy ways to implement this in your lesson.  Differentiating Instruction

 

Teacher and student

untitled photo, licensed under Creative Commons CC-BY by Miwako Nakamoto taken September 2, 2015 from Flickr

 

Does my lesson plan reflect principles of brain-based learning?

Brain based learning refers to teaching methods, lesson designs, and school programs that are based on the latest scientific research about how the brain learns, including such factors as cognitive development- how student learn differently as they grow and mature socially, emotionally, and cognitively.  https://www.edglossary.org/brain-based-learning/

 

Here are some important principles of brain-based learning.

  1. The brain works better when learners exercise more and eat healthier foods that energize them. In the classroom that might mean students taking standing and/or walking breaks instead of sitting for hours.
  2. Teachers should be conscious that criticizing students can impair their thinking while praising them can have the opposite effect. Students need to experience success and positive feedback every day!
  3. Brain-based experts believe that cooperative learning is the best way for students to learn. Student’s brains develop better with other student’s brains.
  4. Students can improve their memory by teaching other students. Retention of information is better when you teach someone else the material.  Vygotsky supports the idea of using “more skilled peers” to assist others in the learning environment.
  5. Repetition improves learning.  Students tend to retain information when they have immediate opportunities to practice what they have learned. 
  6. Listening to lectures is not an effective way for students to retain information.  Piaget supports the concept of “active learning.”
  7. Lesson content needs to be meaningful for the student.  Students need to be excited and motivated to learn.  Students need to have a personal connection to the lesson topic for them to retain the information.
  8. Brain-based learning experts suggest that students should be given opportunities to summarize information either orally or in writing.  Just repeating the information is not as effective as putting the information “in your own words”.
  9. Brain-based learning experts promote the idea of using many different strategies in the classroom.  Marilee Sprenger recommends storytelling, humor, games, analogy, metaphor, and movement.
  10. Classroom environments need to be “stress-free.” High stress levels can cause chemical changes in the brain that impair its performance.  Students who experience high levels of stress are not as successful as students who experience low levels of stress.

Source: https://globaldigitalcitizen.org/10-benefits-brain-based-learning-instruction

 

Diff Instruction

untitled photo, licensed under Creative Commons CC-BY

by ELTpics taken January 31, 2014 from Flickr

 

 

 

 

Does my lesson plan reflect principles of Universal Design for Learning?

Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a framework for how to develop lesson plans based on three main principles:

Representation: UDL recommends offering information in more than one format. For example, textbooks are primarily visual. But providing text, audio, video and hands-on learning gives all kids a chance to access the material in whichever way is best suited to their learning strengths.

 

Action and expression: UDL suggest giving kids more than one way to interact with the material and to show what they have learned. For example, students might get to choose between taking a pencil-and-paper test, giving an oral presentation, or doing a group project.

 

Engagement: UDL encourages teachers to look for multiple ways to motivate students. Letting kids make choices and giving them assignments that feel relevant to their lives are some examples of how teachers can sustain students’ interest.

Source: https://www.understood.org/en/school-learning/for-educators/universal-design-for-learning/understanding-universal-design-for-learning

The following chart summarizes the difference between traditional classrooms and UDL classrooms

 

Traditional Classrooms

UDL Classrooms

Teaching focuses on what is taught

Teaching focus on both what is taught and how

Accommodations are for specific students.

Accommodations are for all students.

The teacher decides how the material will be taught.

The teacher works with the student to decide how the student will learn the material.

The classroom has a fixed setup.

The classroom has a flexible setup.

There is one way for a student to complete an assignment.

There are multiple ways to complete an assignment.

Grades are used to measure performance.

Grades are used to reinforce goals.

      Source: https://www.understood.org/en/learning-thinking-differences/treatments-approaches/educational-             strategies/the-difference-between-universal-design-for-learning-udl-and-traditional-education

 

For a better understanding of how to implement UDL concepts into your classroom, view this video produced by Understood.

UDL in the classroom

 

This chart adapted from Understood for All, Inc. is a convenient reference for planning.  It can also be found here:

Getting Started with Universal Design for Learning

Teacher and Student

untitled photo, licensed under Creative Commons CC-BYby tamucc taken October 3, 2013 from Flickr

 

Getting started with Universal Design Learning (UDL)

 

 

Provide multiple means of engagement

           How can I engage all students in my class?

• In what ways do I give students choice and autonomy?

• How do I make learning relevant to students’ needs and wants?

• In what ways is my classroom accepting and supportive of all students?

 

Examples:

• Survey students about their interests, strengths, and needs. Incorporate the findings into  lessons.

• Use choice menus for working toward goals.

• State learning goals clearly and in a way that feels relevant to students.

 

 

Provide multiple means of representation

           How can I present information in ways that reach all learners?

• Have I considered options for how printed texts, pictures, and charts are displayed?

• What options do I provide for students who need support engaging with texts and/or with auditory learning?

 

Examples:

• Make it easy for students to adjust font sizes and background colors through technology.

• Provide options for engaging with texts, such as text-to-speech, audiobooks, or partner reading.

 

 

Provide multiple means of action and expression

            How can I offer purposeful options for students to show what they know?

• When can I provide flexibility with timing and pacing?

• Have I considered methods aside from paper-and-pencil tasks for students to show what they know?

• Am I providing students access to assistive technology (AT)?

 

Examples:

• Provide calendars and checklists to help students track the subtasks for meeting a learning goal.

• Allow students to show what they know through a variety of formats, such as a poster presentation or a graphic organizer.

• Provide students with access to common AT, such as speech-to-text and text-to-speech.

 

 

 

 

Appendix and Other Useful Resources

 

  1. General Education Lesson Plan Form
  2. Post Teaching Reflection
  3. Weekly Overview Planning Sheet
  4. Bloom’s Taxonomy- Verb list
  5. Kindergarten Sample Lesson Plan
  6. Fifth Grade Sample Lesson Plan
  7. Student lesson plan samples
    1. Early Childhood
    2. Special Education

 

 

 

Lesson Plan Form

Topic of lesson:

 

Time Planned:

Standard Addressed:

 

Lesson Objective(s):                 

Students will

Motivation:

 

Activity:

 

Individualized Instruction:

 

Closure:

 

Materials Needed:

 

Assessment Activity:

 

Self-evaluation:

 

Data Collected (if applicable):

 

 

 

 

Post-Teaching Reflection Questions

 

 

1.  How well did I meet the lesson objectives?  What evidence do I have to support my claim? 

 

2.  What did I do to actively engage the students? What evidence do I have that students were actively engaged? 

 

3. Did I alter my goals, strategies, activities, student grouping and/or assessment as I taught the lesson?  If so, what changes did I make and why?

 

4. Were my strategies and activities effective?  What is my evidence?

 

5. Was my assessment effective and useful to my students and me? Describe an instance in which my feedback positively affected a student's learning.

 

6. To what extent did the classroom environment (procedures, encouraging appropriate behavior, use of time and space, respect and rapport) contribute to student learning?  What is my evidence?

 

7. If I could teach this lesson again, what might I do differently?  Why?

 

8. What do I need to read about more in the professional literature to support my development as a teacher?

 

9. Address any other relevant needs, concerns, creative ideas, etc. at the conclusion of your reflection. 

 

 

Evaluation

Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/143106192@N03/43513784172/

 

 

ELC Weekly Plan

 

Week of:

 

Class:

Weekly Theme:

Author of The Month:

Artist of The Month:

Region of The Month:

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Objective

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Materials

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Story Time

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Music and Movement

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Block Center:

 

 

Art Center:

 

 

Library Center:

 

 

Writing Center:

 

 

Music Center:

 

 

Sensory Table Center:

 

 

Math & Science Center:

 

 

Dramatic Play:

 

 

 

Outdoor Play:

 

 

 

Individual Child Planning:

 

 

 

Transitions:

 

 

 

Family Partnerships:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Social – Emotional Development

Physical Development

Language and Literacy Development

Cognitive Development

Skills

 

Objectives:

 

Objectives:

 

Objectives:

 

Objectives:

 

 

Mathematics

Science and Technology

Social Studies

The Arts

Skills

 

Objectives:

 

Objectives:

 

Objectives:

 

Objectives:

 

 

 

 

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy- Verb List

 

Source:  https://www.miamioh.edu/cte/assessment/writing-student-learning-outcomes/blooms-action-verbs/index.html

 

Knowledge

define
identify
describe
label
list
name
state
match
recognize
select
examine
locate
memorize
quote
recall
reproduce
tabulate
tell
copy
discover
duplicate
enumerate
listen
observe
omit
read
recite
record
repeat
retell
visualize

 

Understand

explain
describe
interpret
paraphrase
summarize
classify
compare
differentiate
discuss
distinguish
extend
predict
associate
contrast
convert
demonstrate
estimate
express
identify
indicate
infer
relate
restate
select
translate
ask
cite
discover
generalize
group
illustrate
judge
observe
order
report
represent
research
review
rewrite
show
trace

 

Apply

solve
apply
illustrate
modify
use
calculate
change
choose
demonstrate
discover
experiment
relate
show
sketch
complete
construct
dramatize
interpret
manipulate
paint
prepare
teach
act
collect
compute
explain
list
operate
practice
simulate
transfer
write

 

Analyze

analyze
compare
classify
contrast
distinguish
infer
separate
explain
select
categorize
connect
differentiate
divide
order
prioritize
survey
calculate
conclude
correlate
deduce
devise
diagram
dissect
estimate
evaluate
experiment
focus
illustrate
organize
outline
plan
question
test

 

Evaluate

reframe
criticize
evaluate
order
appraise
judge
support
compare
decide
discriminate
recommend
summarize
assess
choose
convince
defend
estimate
grade
measure
predict
rank
score
select
test
argue
conclude
consider
critique
debate
distinguish
editorialize
justify
persuade
rate
weigh

 

Create

design
compose
create
plan
combine
formulate
invent
hypothesize
substitute
write
compile
construct
develop
generalize
integrate
modify
organize
prepare
produce
rearrange
rewrite
adapt
anticipate
arrange
assemble
choose
collaborate
facilitate
imagine
intervene
make
manage
originate
propose
simulate
solve
support
test
validate

 

Lesson Plan Form

Topic of lesson:

 If You Give A Moose a Muffin

Time Planned: 40 minutes

Standard Addressed:

Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development: summarize the key supporting details and ideas.

Lesson Objective(s)/                    Learning Outcome(s):

Students will identify the main topic and retell key details of a text with prompting and support.

Motivation:

The children will sit on the carpet.  Teacher will show them the cover of the book, If you Give a Moose a Muffin, and ask: 

Does anyone know the title of this book?  (restate the title it is given correctly or give title if not)

Have any of you ever given a moose a muffin? 

What do you think might happen if you gave a moose a muffin?  (record answers on a flip chart, white board, etc. as given.  Save for later)

Introduce the book.  (4 minutes)

 

 

Activity:

  Activity: (15-20 minutes)

  1. Teacher will introduce the book with the title, author, and illustrator.
  2. Teacher will read the book prompting children to anticipate the next step of the moose’s adventures.
  3. After reading, teacher and students will recall the places and objects the moose encountered throughout the book.  A student will place the corresponding picture on the board as each is recalled.
  4. Teacher will lead the students through arranging the pictures in correct order as they appeared in the book (not every spot/item needs to be included- limit of 5-6)
  5. Students will review the sequence with the teacher.
  6. Teacher will introduce the cutting/sequencing activity.
  7. Students will work to cut out pictures on a prepared handout and glue them in the appropriate place on a sequence chart to complete the circular story.

Individualized Instruction:

Assist Domo and Emily with cutting as needed.

Closure:

Teacher will direct students’ attention to the list generated at the beginning of the lesson where children predicted the activities in the book.  They will review each and give a thumbs up or thumbs down if that prediction was correct. 

 

Materials Needed:

  • book- If You Give a Moose a Muffin by Laura Numeroff
  • Pictures of key points of the book- muffin, jar of jam, sweater, needle and thread, sock puppet, paint and brush, sheet, ghost, bar of soap, blackberry bushes
  • Sequencing worksheet
  • Scissors
  • Glue sticks
  • Crayons

Assessment Activity:

  • Responses in discussion (both large group and individual)
  • Completing the sequencing graphic organizer

Self-evaluation:

 I think this lesson went well.  Most students could repeat the majority of the key points.  Not enough time was allotted for cutting and gluing.  If done at the beginning of the year again, have less pieces for them to cut.  There was a lot of confusion between a muffin and cupcake.

Data Collected (if applicable):

 Left handed cutters:  Geri, Liam and Evelyn

 

 

Lesson Plan Form

Topic of lesson:

 Terrifying Teeth

Time Planned: 40 minutes

Standard Addressed:

Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it, cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

Lesson Objective(s)/                    Learning Outcome(s):

Students will determine main ideas of portions of the text

Motivation:

The teacher will introduce today’s topic and ask students to work in the table groups to complete a KWL chart on shark teeth.  (5-7 minutes) 

Activity:

 (20-30 minutes)

  1. Teacher will introduce the reading, Terrifying Teeth, Scholastic Books, April          21, 2020.
  2. Teacher will review the concept of main idea and have discuss the main idea of the article as evidenced by the title. 
  3. A student will volunteer to read the first paragraph.
  4. Teacher will ask for volunteer to identify the main idea in that paragraph.  Once identified, teacher will circle it on the projected copy.  Students will do the same on theirs. Teacher will circulate to check for understanding.
  5. Students will then silently read and continue to circle the main ideas.
  6. After reading, students will work in groups to verify their main ideas with each other. 

Individualized Instruction:

 Provide audio copy of article for Elliot.

Closure:

Students will complete a main idea graphic organizer.

 

Materials Needed:

 

Assessment Activity:

  • Circling main ideas
  • Completing the graphic organizer

Self-evaluation:

I feel like, while it went well, the article was too easy for this class.  They need a higher level to challenge them.  Much interest about sharks and sea life.  Find more information for future lessons

Data Collected (if applicable):

 N/A

 

 

 

This lesson plan does not follow our suggested format.  As you develop skills in lesson planning, you will be able to tailor the suggested format to meet your personal needs as this student has done.

Sample Early Childhood Lesson Plan

Activity: Math, Addition/Subtraction

Time: 20 minutes

  1. Lesson Overview
    1. Component – Numbers
    2. Outcomes- Students will be challenged with math equations and are expected to have an understanding of addition and subtraction with different numbers and food items (fruits and veggies.)
      1. Students will solve addition and subtraction equations.
      2. Students will use a variety of different types of fruit and vegetable items while they add and subtract.
    3. Grouping – Whole group for ½, and small groups for ½.

 

  1. Teaching Procedures/Lesson Development
    1. Motivation/Introduction – For this lesson, the teacher will read the “Five Little Bunnies” poem about subtraction to pre-review. (author unknown, it is searchable on google)
    2. Development –
      1. Teacher will show everybody 2 simple subtraction and addition equations on a white board using fruit and vegetable object that sticks to whiteboard (such as magnetic or Velcro) OR cut outs of bunnies holding carrots. (Either would work)

 

      1. Students will then use the fruits and vegetables to answer the 1 or 2 simple addition equation(s) on their personal blackboard.

 

      1. Teacher will then have students gather in small groups (3-4 people) to solve a simple subtraction or addition equation on the floor with either fruit or vegetable plastic objects.

 

      1. Teacher will supply each group with 2 or 3 equations, all involving different numbers, and fruits/veggies to further challenge the children trying to solve the subtraction equation.

 

      1. Students will look at the equation and determine the answer (with correct units i.e., 5 apples) by using the varied food objects.

 

      1. Students will then rotate to the different addition/subtraction stations around the room with their small group.

 

      1. Guided Practice:  Students will work independently and get a variety of shapes and make equations for their elbow buddy (peer.)

 

    1. Closure – Review Addition (Subtraction was the Intro)

Play the “Adding by 1 Song” by Silly School Songs

Link to song: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PYL4nyE7zeo&feature=emb_title

DOES NOT APPLY TO THEMATIC UNIT TOPIC- DO NOT WANT TO OVERLOAD STUDENTS WITH TOO MUCH FRUITS AND VEGGIES.

 

  1. Materials
    1. Students – None for this lesson.
    2. Teacher – “5 Little Bunnies” poem, whiteboards, wide variety of different fruit and vegetable shaped magnets/Velcro pictures, plastic fruit and vegetable toys, computer to play “The Adding by 1 Song”

 

  1. Assessment – Informally observe children while they are in small groups solving equations, and while they are working independently to create an equation for their elbow buddy. They must use the given fruit and veggie objects to answer equations with correct units as well.

 

  1. Comments- I think this was a great idea for a lesson. Not only does this lesson help with regular number math, but it also touches on fruits and vegetables which will help students understand the importance of the thematic unit. From an improvement standpoint, I could possibly tie in other subjects for the students so that connections and comparisons are made in other academic areas, such as health or science.

 

 

 

 

This lesson plan does not follow our suggested format.  As you develop skills in lesson planning, you will be able to tailor the suggested format to meet your personal needs as this student has done.

Sample Special Education Lesson Plan

Written by a former student

Lesson Objective

The student will create words by blending individual letter sounds.

IEP Goal

The student will fluently read grade-level texts on 4 out of 5 consecutive occasions.

IEP Objective

Given a list of CVC words, the student will blend sounds to decode words with 80% accuracy.

Materials

  1. One large cardboard picture of two bumper cars (each car should be made with a small pocket on the side to place the letter cards in)
  2. Two complete sets of red and blue cards (one for the teacher and one for the student). The red cards will have the following consonant letters: r, s, b, c, m, h, n, s, t, d. The blue cards will have the vowel “a” on them.
  3. One set of cardboard cars for the student to use
  4. Flashcards with CVC words with the vowel “a” (e.g., cat, man, cab, ham, etc.)

Research-backed Instructional Technique

multisensory instruction (visual, auditory, and kinesthetic)

Warm-Up

Show Daniel each of the red and blue cards and ask him to tell the sound that each letter makes. Explain to Daniel that in order to read words he must blend these sounds together.

Procedures

  1. Share the following story about consonants and vowels with Daniel: All of the alphabet sounds were out at Celebration Station and Arcade. Several of the sounds could not wait to ride the bumper cars. (Show the cardboard cars.) The consonants raced to get a bumper car, but all the vowel sounds just sat there. One day "b" (use the sound, not the letter name) said to "a" (use short vowel sound), "Come on, let's go ride the cars." But "a" said, "No thank you. I'm not about to get in one of those cars. I'll just watch." In case you have not figured it out, the vowels were afraid to ride the bumper cars. But "b" persisted and said, "It is so much fun. You can ride with me so you will not be afraid." After a little more persuasion, "a" decided to give it a try. So "b" and "a" went and got in the bumper car together.
  2. Model the blending activity for Daniel. Hold the "b" card and the "a" card together, place them in the car, and move them around saying, "ba, ba, ba, ba." Then, have Daniel say it, too. Put the "t" card in another car. When "b" and "a" sees that they are about to bump into someone, they say "baaaa" until they bump into "t" making the word "bat."
  3. Continue the story: "a" had a blast riding in the car with "b" and together they made a word. Did you hear what they said? They made "bat." "a" could not wait to bump into more people. This time "d" (letter sound" was in the other car and "b" and "a" rode around some more, "baaaa," until they came upon "d." "baaaaa" bumped into "d's" car, "baaa. . .d," making the word "bad." "Hip, Hip, Hooray," shouted "a," "We made another word. . .bad!" Soon the other vowels saw how much fun "a" was having and they could not wait to ride the bumper cars, too.
  4. Continue bumping into cars with different consonant and vowel sounds. Allow Daniel to try it on the large car/track picture and give him a copy of the cars for him to have at his own desk.
  5. Let Daniel practice blending on his own and see what words he can make by blending consonant/vowel/consonant words. Be sure to remind him that he must always have a consonant (red card) ride with a vowel (blue card) and to always have a consonant (red card) bump into them. If necessary, tell him to let only these letters ride together: "ra," "ha," "ba," and "ca" and let these letters bump into them: "t," "d," "n," and "s." Daniel must create five words on his own using the bumper cars.

Assessment & Closure

Show Daniel each word flashcard. Record a + for each word he reads correctly and a – for each word he reads incorrectly.

Reflective Essay

This lesson proved to be an effective way for me to teach the concept of blending sounds to form words. First, I know from working with Daniel over the past couple of months that he loves cars. Thus, choosing to use bumper cars as my theme helped me to grab his interest in participating in the activity from the very beginning. Daniel has severe ADHD, so capturing his attention is an essential first step in teaching him anything. Apart from this, he found the story hilarious and could not wait to get his hands on his own set of bumper cars.

In terms of the lesson itself, it was beneficial for me to model the activity first and gradually ease Daniel into completing the activity independently. I encouraged him to create his own story while blending the sounds, which also helped keep his attention and excitement. In terms of Daniel's progress towards completing his IEP objective, he completed the assessment with 80% accuracy. However, during this activity and over the past couple of weeks, I noticed that Daniel has a challenging time spelling words with the consecutive letters "ar" in them. Because when spoken, the letter "r" essentially makes the same sound as "ar," Daniel often forgets the vowel and will write two consonants. This is evident in his misspelling of the words "jar" and "bar." I believe that the only way that this problem will be resolved is through practice both in reading books with these words and in actually spelling the words himself. Furthermore, I observed that Daniel struggled much more with writing the words when given only sounds than blending the sounds/letters to create words using the bumper cars.

I found it very easy to collect data during this activity because I had the luxury of only working with one student. I was able to administer the assessments directly to Daniel and thus observed and recorded his responses. I was also able to provide him with extra guidance when necessary and speed up the activity when I felt that he had mastered the concept.

If I were to implement this activity again, I would provide Daniel with more practice spelling words correctly when given sounds. I had divided my time so that we spent most of the lesson working together and only a few minutes with Daniel completing the assessment independently. In reality, I feel that Daniel could have handled more independence earlier on in the lesson, which would have given him more practice and thus more confidence with the concepts. I still feel that he relies on me to help him even though he can do many things on his own. This is primarily the case because he has very low self-esteem and does not trust in his abilities. Furthermore, I feel that it would have been beneficial, if time permitted, to include a short book at the conclusion of this lesson. The book could be read independently or together to give this child some "real-world" exposure to the concept of blending sounds to form words.

DATA (collected during the assessment)

Man +

Cab –

Hat +

Ran +

Sam –

Had +

Sat +

Ham +

Dan +

Sad +

 

 

Resources

                                                          

Education Week, Differentiating Instruction: How to Plan your Lessons (2019). Retrieved from https://youtu.be/rumHfC1XQtc

Everette, Meghan. The Hidden Power of Learning Objectives. (October 18, 2017). Scholastic Publishing, New York, New York.

Great Schools Partnership, The Glossary of Education Reform, Brain Based Learning (2013). Retrieved from https://www.edglossary.org/brain-based-learning/

Hayden, Joan, Laura Hutton, et al, Implementing Developmentally Appropriate Practices in the Preschool Classroom. (2021). https://most.oercommons.org/courseware/lesson/404/student/  

Indyk, Elizabeth. Formative Assessment. September 23, 2014. Powerpoint presentation. https://www.slideserve.cIm/dysis/formative-assessments

Lee, Maddie, Darcie Bottem, and Monica Sanvik, Strategies. Retrieved from https://strategiesforspecialinterventions.weebly.com/

Literacy aLive! (January 4, 2019) I Do, You Do, We Do. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/FysnvgCn0n8

Maryland Public Television/Thinkport, Gradual Release of Responsibility. Retrieved from https://www.thinkport.org/grr/index.html

Maryland State Department of Education (2013) Maryland College and Career-Ready Standards. Baltimore, Maryland.

Maryland State Department of Education, (2016) Maryland Early Learning Standards, Birth-Age 8.  Baltimore, Maryland.

Northeastern Center for Advancing Teaching and Learning through Research, Course Learning Outcomes, Retrieved from https://learning.northeastern.edu/course-learning-outcomes/

Numeroff, Laura. If You Give a Moose a Muffin. 1991. Laura Geringer Books, New York, New York.

Posey, Allison, M.Ed. Universal Design for Learning (UDL): A Teacher’s Guide. Understood for All, Inc.. Retrieved from https://www.understood.org/en/school-learning/for-educators/universal-design-for-learning/understanding-universal-design-for-learning

Scholastic Magazine, Terrifying Teeth (August 21, 2020) Retrieved from https://sn56.scholastic.com/pages/promotion/navigationlps/083120/terrifying-teeth.html

Shabatura, Jessica. Using Bloom’s Taxonomy to Write Effective Learning Objectives (Sept. 27, 2013). University of Arkansas.

Teach for Life (November 21, 2018). I Do, You Do, We Do. Retrieved from: https://youtu.be/xEkISDTFcf0

Understood, (January 29, 2019). Seeing UDL in Action in the Classroom.  Retrieved from https://youtu.be/B7qYJY62X2s

University of Michigan Center for Research on Learning and Teaching, Strategies for Effective Lesson Planning (2020). Retrieved from https://crlt.umich.edu/gsis/p2_5

Wabisabi Learning. (2019) 10 Beneficial Things to Know about Brain-Based Learning Instruction. Retrieved from https://globaldigitalcitizen.org/10-benefits-brain-based-learning-instruction

Weselby, Cathy. What is Differentiated Instruction? Examples of How to Differentiate Instruction in the Classroom. The Resilient Educator (2020). Retrieved from https://resilienteducator.com/classroom-resources/examples-of-differentiated-instruction/