Provides acoustical background necessary to understand the role of sound in speech communication. Analyzes constraints imposed by the properties of sound and human anatomy on speech production (sound production from airflow and filtering by the vocal tract); auditory physiology (transformation of acoustical waves in the air to mechanical vibrations of cochlear structures); and sound perception (spatial hearing, masking, and auditory frequency selectivity). The Acoustics of Speech and Hearing is an H-Level graduate course that reviews the physical processes involved in the production, propagation and reception of human speech. Particular attention is paid to how the acoustics and mechanics of the speech and auditory system define what sounds we are capable of producing and what sounds we can sense. Areas of discussion include: 1. the acoustic cues used in determining the direction of a sound source, 2. the acoustic and mechanical mechanisms involved in speech production and 3. the acoustic and mechanical mechanism used to transduce and analyze sounds in the ear
12.491 is a seminar focusing on problems of current interest in geology and geochemistry. For Fall 2005, the topic is organic geochemistry. Lectures and readings cover recent research in the development and properties of organic matter.
You probably have a general understanding of how your body works. But do you fully comprehend how all of the intricate functions and systems of the human body work together to keep you healthy? This course will provide that insight. By approaching the study of the body in an organized way, you will be able to connect what you learn about anatomy and physiology to what you already know about your own body.
By taking this course, you will begin to think and speak in the language of the domain while integrating the knowledge you gain about anatomy to support explanations of physiological phenomenon. The course focuses on a few themes that, when taken together, provide a full view of what the human body is capable of and of the exciting processes going on inside of it.
Topics covered include: Structure and Function, Homeostasis, Levels of Organization, and Integration of Systems.
Note: This free course requires registration
Anatomy and Physiology is a dynamic textbook for the two-semester human anatomy and physiology course for life science and allied health majors. The book is organized by body system and covers standard scope and sequence requirements. Its lucid text, strategically constructed art, career features, and links to external learning tools address the critical teaching and learning challenges in the course. The web-based version of Anatomy and Physiology also features links to surgical videos, histology, and interactive diagrams.
Includes the study of the gross and microscopic structure of the systems of the human body with special emphasis on the relationship between structure and function. Integrates anatomy and physiology of cells, tissues, organs, the systems of the human body, and mechanisms responsible for homeostasis.
Includes sections on the Endocrine System, the Cardiovascular System, the Lymphatic and Immune System, the Respiratory System, the Digestive System, Nutrition, the Urinary System, the Reproductive System, and Development and Inheritance.
This Open Course is an adaptation of OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology and was created under a Round Nine ALG Textbook Transformation Grant.
Topics covered include:
This set of anatomy videos illustrating parts of the human body was created under a Round Eleven Mini-Grant for Ancillary Materials Creation.
Anatomy of the Senses
Veterinary nurses need to have a firm grasp of the normal structure of an animal’s body and how it functions before they can understand the effect diseases and injuries have and the best ways to treat them. This book describes the structure of the animal body and the way in which it works. Animals encountered in normal veterinary practice are used as examples where possible.
This 12 session course is designed for the beginning or novice archer and uses recurve indoor target bows and equipment. The purpose of the course is to introduce students to the basic techniques of indoor target archery emphasizing the care and use of equipment, range safety, stance and shooting techniques, scoring and competition.
Course DescriptionThis is the first part of a sequential two-semester class; Bio 201 is the second semester class. This course includes the study of human structure and function covering biochemistry, cells, metabolism, body organization, tissues, and selected systems, including the skeletal, integumentary, articular, muscular, and nervous systems. Lecture is 3 hours weekly and lab is 3 hours weekly.
This course provides an outline of vertebrate functional neuroanatomy, aided by studies of comparative neuroanatomy and evolution, and by studies of brain development. Topics include early steps to a central nervous system, basic patterns of brain and spinal cord connections, regional development and differentiation, regeneration, motor and sensory pathways and structures, systems underlying motivations, innate action patterns, formation of habits, and various cognitive functions. In addition, lab techniques are reviewed and students perform brain dissections.
Surveys the molecular and cellular mechanisms of neuronal communication. Covers ion channels in excitable membrane, synaptic transmission, and synaptic plasticity. Correlates the properties of ion channels and synaptic transmission with their physiological function such as learning and memory. Discusses the organizational principles for the formation of functional neural networks at synaptic and cellular levels.
This course is designed to provide an understanding of how the human brain works in health and disease, and is intended for both the Brain and Cognitive Science major and the non-Brain and Cognitive Science major. Knowledge of how the human brain works is important for all citizens, and the lessons to be learned have enormous implications for public policy makers and educators. The course will cover the regional anatomy of the brain and provide an introduction to the cellular function of neurons, synapses and neurotransmitters. Commonly used drugs that alter brain function can be understood through a knowledge of neurotransmitters. Along similar lines, common diseases that illustrate normal brain function will be discussed. Experimental animal studies that reveal how the brain works will be reviewed. Throughout the seminar we will discuss clinical cases from Dr. Byrne's experience that illustrate brain function; in addition, articles from the scientific literature will be discussed at each class.
" This course provides an exciting, eye-opening, and thoroughly useful inquiry into what it takes to live an extraordinary life, on your own terms. The instructors address what it takes to succeed, to be proud of your life, and to be happy in it. Participants tackle career satisfaction, money, body, vices, and relationship to themselves and others. They learn how to address issues in their lives, how to live life, and how to learn from it. This course is offered during the Independent Activities Period (IAP), which is a special 4-week term at MIT that runs from the first week of January until the end of the month. This not-for-credit course is sponsored by the Department of Science, Technology, and Society. A similar, semester-long version of this course is taught in the Sloan Fellows Program. A semester-long extension of the IAP course is also taught to the population at large of MIT (please see PE.550, Spring). Acknowledgment The instructors would like to thank Prof. David Mindell for his sponsorship of this course, his intention for its continued expansion, and his commitment to the well-being of MIT students."
This course is intended to provide students with the fundamentals of fencing, including footwork, bladework, bouting and refereeing. It will allow students to develop the ability to analyze a fencing bout, and promotes creativity in applying acquired skills in a fencing bout.
" We are now at an unprecedented point in the field of neuroscience: We can watch the human brain in action as it sees, thinks, decides, reads, and remembers. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the only method that enables us to monitor local neural activity in the normal human brain in a noninvasive fashion and with good spatial resolution. A large number of far-reaching and fundamental questions about the human mind and brain can now be answered using straightforward applications of this technology. This is particularly true in the area of high-level vision, the study of how we interpret and use visual information including object recognition, mental imagery, visual attention, perceptual awareness, visually guided action, and visual memory. The goals of this course are to help students become savvy and critical readers of the current neuroimaging literature, to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the technique, and to design their own cutting-edge, theoretically motivated studies. Students will read, present to the class, and critique recently published neuroimaging articles, as well as write detailed proposals for experiments of their own. Lectures will cover the theoretical background on some of the major areas in high-level vision, as well as an overview of what fMRI has taught us and can in future teach us about each of these topics. Lectures and discussions will also cover fMRI methods and experimental design. A prior course in statistics and at least one course in perception or cognition are required."
" This team-taught multidisciplinary course provides information relevant to the conduct and interpretation of human brain mapping studies. It begins with in-depth coverage of the physics of image formation, mechanisms of image contrast, and the physiological basis for image signals. Parenchymal and cerebrovascular neuroanatomy and application of sophisticated structural analysis algorithms for segmentation and registration of functional data are discussed. Additional topics include: fMRI experimental design including block design, event related and exploratory data analysis methods, and building and applying statistical models for fMRI data; and human subject issues including informed consent, institutional review board requirements and safety in the high field environment. Additional Faculty Div Bolar Dr. Bradford Dickerson Dr. John Gabrieli Dr. Doug Greve Dr. Karl Helmer Dr. Dara Manoach Dr. Jason Mitchell Dr. Christopher Moore Dr. Vitaly Napadow Dr. Jon Polimeni Dr. Sonia Pujol Dr. Bruce Rosen Dr. Mert Sabuncu Dr. David Salat Dr. Robert Savoy Dr. David Somers Dr. A. Gregory Sorensen Dr. Christina Triantafyllou Dr. Wim Vanduffel Dr. Mark Vangel Dr. Lawrence Wald Dr. Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli Dr. Anastasia Yendiki "
Presents the anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, biophysics, and bioengineering of the gastrointestinal tract and associated pancreatic, liver, and biliary systems. Emphasis on the molecular and pathophysiological basis of disease where known. Covers gross and microscopic pathology and clinical aspects. Formal lectures given by core faculty, with some guest lectures by local experts. Selected seminars conducted by students with supervision of faculty. Permission of instructor required. (Only HST students may register under HST.120, graded P/D/F.) The most recent knowledge of the anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, biophysics, and bioengineering of the gastrointestinal tract and the associated pancreatic, liver and biliary tract systems is presented and discussed. Gross and microscopic pathology and the clinical aspects of important gastroenterological diseases are then presented, with emphasis on integrating the molecular, cellular and pathophysiological aspects of the disease processes to their related symptoms and signs.
An integrated course stressing the principles of biology. Life processes are examined primarily at the organismal and population levels. Intended for students majoring in biology or for non-majors who wish to take advanced biology courses.
From the Website:
HHMI BioInteractive brings the power of real science stories into tens of thousands of high school and undergraduate life science classrooms.
Our stories anchor a variety of classroom resources based on peer-reviewed science. From data-rich activities and case studies to high-quality videos and interactive media, our resources are designed to connect students to big ideas in biology, promote engagement with science practices, and instill awe and wonder about the living world.
In addition, the BioInteractive website provides educators with planning tools to build resource playlists and storylines, and professional learning materials and opportunities to deepen their scientific and pedagogical expertise.
Our resources and tools reflect current knowledge of how students learn and evidence-based strategies for supporting engagement and inclusion.
We also believe inspiration, curiosity, and love of the natural world should be nurtured outside of the classroom, and we partner with filmmakers to bring high-quality science films to everyone.
This lesson created in Softchalk is a repository for OER and online resources for students. The purpose of this site is to provide a single location to house resources for students who may need access to reviews of basic scientific information that is relevant across several disciplines, especially anatomy & physiology, biology and chemistry. For example, each of these disciplines requires a basic understanding of matter and atomic structure in order to understand reactions and how living organisms function.
This course will provide the student with an overview of the body from a systemic perspective. Each unit will focus on one system, or network of organs that work together to perform a particular function. At the end of this course, the student will review the ways in which the systems overlap, as well as discuss current body imaging techniques and learn how to correctly interpret the images in order to put our newly-gained anatomical knowledge to practical use. Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to: identify gross and microscopic anatomy and explain interactions of the major organ systems in the human body; perform and analyze experiments in human anatomy (virtual); use language necessary to appropriately describe human anatomy; explain and identify how structure and function complement each other; describe how anatomy relates to medical situations in healthy and diseased states. (Biology 302)
This is a lab manual for a college-level human anatomy course. Mastery of anatomy requires a fair amount of memorization and recall skills. The activities in this manual encourage students to engage with new vocabulary in many ways, including grouping key terms, matching terms to structures, recalling definitions, and written exercises. Most of the activities in this manual utilize anatomical models, and several dissections of animal tissues and histological examinations are also included. Each unit includes both pre- and post-lab questions and six lab exercises designed for a classroom where students move from station to station. The vocabulary terms used in each unit are listed at the end of the manual and serve as a checklist for practicals.
In this lab, the student will review the anatomy and histology of the organs by using images of models, microscopic slides, and videos on cat and sheep dissections. The student will then be asked to assess his or her knowledge, which eventually can be put to practical or experimental use. Upon successful completion of this lab supplement, students will be able to: use anatomical terminology correctly in the laboratory; using a compound light microscope, identify different tissues and describe a human organ where that tissue can be found; describe the major features and functions of human skin; identify and name human bones and their major features and differentiate, microscopically and grossly, between compact and spongy bone; name and describe the functions of the human brain's major structures; describe the anatomical and functional differences between the dorsal and ventral roots of spinal nerves and the dorsal and ventral horns of the spinal cord's grey matter; describe the structure of an intervertebral disc; identify, microscopically and grossly, the differences between the three types of muscle and describe the respective structures and locations of different muscle tissues; identify and name the structures of the human eye and the human ear; describe the major similarities and differences in the structure of an artery and a vein; describe the flow of blood through the heart and identify all major vessels, chambers, and valves; identify and name, histologically and anatomically, the major components of the respiratory system, the digestive system, and the male and female urinary systems; identify and name, histologically and anatomically, the major components of male and female reproductive systems. (Biology 302 Laboratory)
Human Anatomy and Physiology (A&P) 241 is the first class in a two quarter sequence in which human anatomy and physiology are studied using a body systems approach with emphasis on the interrelationships between form and function at the gross and microscopic levels of organization. You can think of this course as An Owneręs Guide to the Human Body. My goal is to help you learn how your body works so that you can explain concepts to others and apply knowledge to novel situations (e.g. make informed decisions regarding your own health and those whom you care about). Youęll also learn how to evaluate scientific research that forms the basis of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology and gain an appreciation for what remains to be discovered. To accomplish these goals requires significant effort from both of us. Although you will need to commit information to memory, I will ask you to focus on learning for understanding and your assessments will reflect this emphasis.
The overall purpose of this preparatory course textbook is to help students familiarize with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later in the Human Anatomy and Physiology I course.
The organization and functioning of the human organism generally is discussed in terms of different levels of increasing complexity, from the smallest building blocks to the entire body. This Anatomy and Physiology preparatory course covers the foundations on the chemical level, and a basic introduction to cellular level, organ level, and organ system levels. There is also an introduction to homeostasis at the beginning.
Physiology The word physiology is from the Ancient Greek φυσιολογία (phusiología, "natural philosophy") and it is the study of how organisms perform their vital functions. An example is the study of how a muscle contracts or the force contracting muscles exert on the skeleton. It was introduced by French physician Jean Fernery in 1552. Physiology is built upon a tripod of sciences: physics, chemistry, and anatomy.
Physiology is the study of the processes of the body. This course is about the unconscious mechanics of living; the student will look at each organ system in detail and then discuss the ways in which the systems interact in order to maintain the body at an optimal state. Metabolism and homeostasis--or the maintenance of the body at a set, optimal level--will be the primary themes. Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to: describe the relationship between structure and function at the cellular level and relate dysfunctional states of health to problems at the cellular level when appropriate; given relevant physiological information, explain the physiological mechanisms involved; describe the concepts of homeostasis and feedback control in relationship to each organ system; use a vocabulary of physiological terms and demonstrate an ability to communicate efficiently in a medical environment; describe techniques currently in use that measure the function of organ systems. (Biology 304)
In this lab, the student will review the physiology of the organ systems by using images of models, experiments, and videos. Then the student will be asked to assess his or her knowledge, which can eventually be put to practical or experimental use. Upon successful completion of this lab supplement, students will be able to: describe techniques used to measure the function of organ systems; relate diagnostic tools, such as those used to measure ECG, EEG, and EMG activity, and those used in spirometry and urinalysis tests, to the physiological processes; relate diagnostic tests, such as the patellar and plantar reflex tests, to physiological processes; perform laboratory observations and experiments; collect, analyze, and interpret data; and form conclusions. (Biology 304 Laboratory)
Lectures and clinical case discussions designed to provide the student with a clear understanding of the physiology, endocrinology, and pathology of human reproduction. Emphasis is on the role of technology in reproductive science. Suggestions for future research contributions in the field are probed. Students become involved in the wider aspects of reproduction, such as prenatal diagnosis, in vitro fertilization, abortion, menopause, contraception and ethics relation to reproductive science. This course is designed to give the student a clear understanding of the pathophysiology of the menstrual cycle, fertilization, implantation, ovum growth development, differentiation and associated abnormalities. Disorders of fetal development including the principles of teratology and the mechanism of normal and abnormal parturition will be covered as well as the pathophysiology of the breast and disorders of lactation. Fetal asphyxia and its consequences will be reviewed with emphasis on the technology currently available for its detection. In addition the conclusion of the reproductive cycle, menopause, and the use of hormonal replacement will be covered.
This text was designed for use in the human osteology laboratory classroom. Bones are described to aid in identification of skeletonized remains in either an archaeological or forensic anthropology setting. Basic techniques for siding, aging, sexing, and stature estimation are described. Both images of bone and drawings are included which may be used for study purposes outside of the classroom. The text represents work that has been developed over more than 30 years by its various authors and is meant to present students with the basic analytical tools for the study of human osteology.
In this course, the student will study microscopic anatomy. The course begins with an overview of basic cell structure follow by an explanation of how single cells come together to make up tissues. The student will then study each of the organ systems in the body, understanding how these tissues fit together structurally to form organs and organ systems that carry out specific functions. Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to: differentiate among the types of microscopy and describe the importance of microscopes in microscopic anatomy; correctly use the compound light microscope with a working knowledge of the function of each part; identify the organelles within a eukaryotic cell and list the basic function of each; compare and contrast meiosis and mitosis, identifying the steps of each in microscopic images; outline what makes each epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscle tissue unique, where each is found within the body, and how each interacts with other tissue types; point out circulatory system features, including intercalated disks and valves, as well as the differences among different vessel types; identify the cells found in blood and the role of each; define how the tissues and anatomical features that make up the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems come together structurally to support the function of these organ systems; identify the features of the epidermis and dermis of the skin, including the cells, layers, glands, and other features of each layer; explain how the structural arrangement of the lymphatic system and lymph node supports its physiological role of filtering; compare and contrast the structural arrangement of spongy and compact bone; map out the path of plasma filtrate as it moves through the neuron and into the ureter, bladder, and urethra, identifying what types of cells are located in each part; describe the basic structure of endocrine organs, including the reproductive organs; identify what features make special senses tissue unique. (Biology 406)
This courses focuses on the fundamentals of tissue and organ response to injury from a molecular and cellular perspective. There is a special emphasis on disease states that bridge infection, inflammation, immunity, and cancer. The systems approach to pathophysiology includes lectures, critical evaluation of recent scientific papers, and student projects and presentations. This term, we focus on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), chronic-active hepatitis, and hepatitis virus infections. In addition to lectures, students work in teams to critically evaluate and present primary scientific papers.
Growth and development of normal bone and joints, the process of mineralization, the biophysics of bone and response to stress and fracture, calcium and phosphate homeostasis and regulation by parathyroid hormone and vitamin D, and the pathogenesis of metabolic bone diseases and disease of connective tissue, joints, and muscles, with consideration of possible mechanisms and underlying metabolic derangements.
This course is designed to provide an overview of neurobiology - the biology of our nervous system, from the spinal cord to the brain, and everything in between. After a general introduction and review of pertinent scientific concepts, the student will take a look at cellular signaling, neuron development and plasticity, and the larger systems of neurobiology, such as the sensory system, motor system, and the complex phenomena of memory and emotion. Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to: demonstrate an understanding of the basic biochemical concepts pertinent to cell biology; identify the basic structure of the nerve cell, the various functions of different components of the nerve cells, and different types of nerve cells; describe various different nervous systems; describe the structure and function of the nervous systems; explain how nerve cells propagate and transmit nervous impulses; describe select diseases caused by malfunctioning or nerve cell death in parts of the nervous system; explain how the nervous system responds to nerve damage or death and therapeutic measures; describe how the nervous system is formed in the embryo and identify the role of various genes and hormonal regulators in that development process; describe the structure and function of the brain and spinal cord; describe the structure and function of the somatic sensory system and the motor system. (Biology 303)
The sensing, thinking, moving body is the basis of our experience in the world; it is the very foundation on which cognitive intelligence is built. Physical Intelligence, then, is the inherent ability of the human organism to function in extraordinary accord with its physical environment. This class--a joint DAPER/ME offering for both PE and academic credit--uses the MIT gymnastics gym as a laboratory to explore Physical Intelligence as applied to ME and design. Readings, discussions and experiential learning introduce various dimensions of Physical Intelligence which students then apply to the design of innovative exercise equipment.
Physical and physiological mechanisms underlying the transduction and analysis of acoustic signals in the auditory periphery. Topics include the acoustics, mechanics, and hydrodynamics of sound transmission; the biophysical basis for cochlear amplification; the physiology of hair-cell transduction and synaptic transmission; efferent feedback control; the analysis and coding of simple and complex sounds by the inner ear; and the physiological bases for hearing disorders. Based primarily on reading and discussions of original research literature. Topics for this course are based primarily on reading and discussions of original research literature that cover the analysis as well as the underlying physical and physiological mechanisms of acoustic signals in the auditory periphery. Topics include the acoustics, mechanics, and hydrodynamics of sound transmission; the biophysical basis for cochlear amplification; the physiology of hair-cell transduction and synaptic transmission; efferent feedback control; the analysis and coding of simple and complex sounds by the inner ear; and the physiological bases for hearing disorders.
Subject provides a comprehensive overview of human pathology with emphasis on mechanisms of disease and modern diagnostic technologies. Topics include: general mechanisms of disease (inflammation, infection, immune injury, host response to foreign materials, transplantation, genetic disorders and neoplasia); pathology of lipids, enzymes, and molecular transporters; pathology of major organ systems; and review of diagnostic tools from invasive surgical pathology to non-invasive techniques such as optical spectroscopy, functional imaging, and molecular markers of disease. The objectives of this subject are achieved by a set of integrated lectures and laboratories, as well as a student-driven term project leading to a formal presentation on a medical, socioeconomic, or technological issue in human pathology.
Innovation in expression -- as realized in media, tangible objects, and performance, and more -- generates new questions and new potentials for human engagement. When and how does expression engage us deeply? While "deep engagement" seems fundamental to the human psyche, it is hard to define, difficult to reliably design for, and hard to critically measure or assess. Are there principles we can articulate? Are there evaluation metrics we can use to insure quality of experience? Many personal stories confirm the hypothesis that once we experience deep engagement, it is a state we long for, remember, and want to repeat. We need to better understand these principles and innovate methods that can insure higher-quality products (artifacts, experiences, environments, performances, etc.) that appeal to a broad audience and that have lasting value over the long term.
Extensive reading of works by a few major poets. Emphasizes the evolution of each poet's work and the questions of poetic influence and literary tradition. Instruction and practice in oral and written communication. Topic for Fall: Does Poetry Matter? Topic for Spring: Gender and Lyric Poetry.
The goals of this instructional course are to get you started in this wonderful sport and to give you a working knowledge of tennis. It should help you to understand the basics of a sport and how to perform these basics. Most of the course will focus on the basic stroke techniques. Variation to those techniques will be presented, as well as drills and games, so that you can take it to the court. Singles and doubles tactics will be covered as well.
This resource offers a selected list of OERs that focus on the field of veterinary science, including animals and ethics, animal nutrition, anatomy and physiology of animals, preventive medicine, and other topics.
The focus of this lab is on heritable diseases of the heart. You are cast here as a virtual intern to accompany a doctor examining three different patients. Each patient is examined, using more than one diagnostic tool, and at each stage, the doctor will invite you to examine the patient yourself and ask for your opinion.