Chemistry is the study of matter. Our understanding of chemical processes thus depends on our ability to acquire accurate information about matter. Often, this information is quantitative, in the form of measurements. In this lab, you will be introduced to some common measuring devices, and learn how to use them to obtain correct measurements, each with correct precision. A metric ruler will be used to measure length in centimeters (cm).
Advanced Inorganic Chemistry is designed to give you the knowledge to explain everyday phenomena of inorganic complexes. The student will study the various aspects of their physical and chemical properties and learn how to determine the practical applications that these complexes can have in industrial, analytical, and medicinal chemistry. Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to: Explain symmetry and point group theory and demonstrate knowledge of the mathematical method by which aspects of molecular symmetry can be determined; Use molecular symmetry to predict or explain the chemical properties of a molecule, such as dipole moment and allowed spectroscopic transitions; Construct simple molecular orbital diagrams and obtain bonding information from them; Demonstrate an understanding of valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR), which is used for predicting the shapes of individual molecules; Explain spectroscopic information obtained from coordination complexes; Identify the chemical and physical properties of transition metals; Demonstrate an understanding of transition metal organometallics; Define the role of catalysts and explain how they affect the activation energy and reaction rate of a chemical reaction; Identify the mechanisms of both ligand substitution and redox processes in transition metal complexes; Discuss some current, real-world applications of transition metal complexes in the fields of medicinal chemistry, solar energy, electronic displays, and ion batteries. (Chemistry 202)
Organic chemistry is the discipline that studies the properties and reactions of organic, carbon-based compounds. The student will begin by studying a unit on ylides, benzyne, and free radicals. Many free radicals affect life processes. For example, oxygen-derived radicals may be overproduced in cells, such as white blood cells that try to defend against infection in a living organism. Afterward the student will move into a comprehensive examination of stereochemistry, as well as the kinetics of substitution and elimination reactions. The course wraps up with a survey of various hetereocyclic structures, including their MO theory, aromaticity, and reactivity. Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to: Describe free radicals in terms of stability, kinetics, and bond dissociation energies; Describe the stereochemistry and orbitals involved in photochemical reactions; Describe enantiomers, diastereomers, pro-S and pro-R hydrogens, and Re/Si faces of carbonyls; Perform conformational analysis of alkanes and cyclohexanes; Describe reaction mechanisms in terms of variousparameters (i.e.,kinetics, Curtin-Hammet principle, Hammond postulate,etc.); Describe the chemistry of the heterocycles listed in Unit3 in terms of molecular orbital theory, aromaticity, and reactions. (Chemistry 201)
Application of structure and theory to the study of organic reaction mechanisms: stereochemical features including conformation and stereoelectronic effects; reaction dynamics, isotope effects and molecular orbital theory applied to pericyclic and photochemical reactions; and special reactive intermediates including carbenes, carbanions, and free radicals.
12.491 is a seminar focusing on problems of current interest in geology and geochemistry. For Fall 2005, the topic is organic geochemistry. Lectures and readings cover recent research in the development and properties of organic matter.
These courses, produced by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, introduce the fundamental concepts and approaches of aerospace engineering, highlighted through lectures on aeronautics, astronautics, and design. MIT˘ďď_s Aerospace and Aeronautics curriculum is divided into three parts: Aerospace information engineering, Aerospace systems engineering, and Aerospace vehicles engineering. Visitors to this site will find undergraduate and graduate courses to fit all three of these areas, from Exploring Sea, Space, & Earth: Fundamentals of Engineering Design to Bio-Inspired Structures
This class analyzes complex biological processes from the molecular, cellular, extracellular, and organ levels of hierarchy. Emphasis is placed on the basic biochemical and biophysical principles that govern these processes. Examples of processes to be studied include chemotaxis, the fixation of nitrogen into organic biological molecules, growth factor and hormone mediated signaling cascades, and signaling cascades leading to cell death in response to DNA damage. In each case, the availability of a resource, or the presence of a stimulus, results in some biochemical pathways being turned on while others are turned off. The course examines the dynamic aspects of these processes and details how biochemical mechanistic themes impinge on molecular/cellular/tissue/organ-level functions. Chemical and quantitative views of the interplay of multiple pathways as biological networks are emphasized. Student work will culminate in the preparation of a unique grant application in an area of biological networks.
Analytical chemistry is the branch of chemistry dealing with measurement, both qualitative and quantitative. This discipline is also concerned with the chemical composition of samples. In the field, analytical chemistry is applied when detecting the presence and determining the quantities of chemical compounds, such as lead in water samples or arsenic in tissue samples. It also encompasses many different spectrochemical techniques, all of which are used under various experimental conditions. This branch of chemistry teaches the general theories behind the use of each instrument as well analysis of experimental data. Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to: Demonstrate a mastery of various methods of expressing concentration; Use a linear calibration curve to calculate concentration; Describe the various spectrochemical techniques as described within the course; Use sample data obtained from spectrochemical techniques to calculate unknown concentrations or obtain structural information where applicable; Describe the various chromatographies described within this course and analyze a given chromatogram; Demonstrate an understanding of electrochemistry and the methods used to study the response of an electrolyte through current of potential. (Chemistry 108)
Analytical chemistry spans nearly all areas of chemistry but involves the development of tools and methods to measure physical properties of substances and apply those techniques to the identification of their presence (qualitative analysis) and quantify the amount present (quantitative analysis) of species in a wide variety of settings.
Analytical chemistry is more than a collection of analytical methods and an understanding of equilibrium chemistry; it is an approach to solving chemical problems. Although equilibrium chemistry and analytical methods are important, their coverage should not come at the expense of other equally important topics. The introductory course in analytical chemistry is the ideal place in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum for exploring topics such as experimental design, sampling, calibration strategies, standardization, optimization, statistics, and the validation of experimental results. Analytical methods come and go, but best practices for designing and validating analytical methods are universal. Because chemistry is an experimental science it is essential that all chemistry students understand the importance of making good measurements.
As currently taught in the United States, introductory courses in analytical chemistryemphasize quantitative (and sometimes qualitative) methods of analysis along with a heavydose of equilibrium chemistry. Analytical chemistry, however, is much more than a collection ofanalytical methods and an understanding of equilibrium chemistry; it is an approach to solvingchemical problems. Although equilibrium chemistry and analytical methods are important, theircoverage should not come at the expense of other equally important topics.
The introductory course in analytical chemistry is the ideal place in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum forexploring topics such as experimental design, sampling, calibration strategies, standardization,optimization, statistics, and the validation of experimental results. Analytical methods comeand go, but best practices for designing and validating analytical methods are universal. Becausechemistry is an experimental science it is essential that all chemistry students understand theimportance of making good measurements.
My goal in preparing this textbook is to find a more appropriate balance between theoryand practice, between “classical” and “modern” analytical methods, between analyzing samplesand collecting samples and preparing them for analysis, and between analytical methods anddata analysis. There is more material here than anyone can cover in one semester; it is myhope that the diversity of topics will meet the needs of different instructors, while, perhaps,suggesting some new topics to cover.
This course details the quantitative treatment of chemical processes in aquatic systems such as lakes, oceans, rivers, estuaries, groundwaters, and wastewaters. It includes a brief review of chemical thermodynamics that is followed by discussion of acid-base, precipitation-dissolution, coordination, and reduction-oxidation reactions. Emphasis is on equilibrium calculations as a tool for understanding the variables that govern the chemical composition of aquatic systems and the fate of inorganic pollutants.
This course provides an introduction to the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere, including experience with computer codes. It is intended for undergraduates and first year graduate students.
This is a free textbook offered by Saylor Foundation. The Basics of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry by David W. Ball, John W. Hill, and Rhonda J. Scott is a new textbook offering for the one-semester GOB Chemistry course. The authors designed this book from the ground up to meet the needs of a one-semester course. It is 20 chapters in length and approximately 350-400 pages; just the right breadth and depth for instructors to teach and students to grasp. In addition, The Basics of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry is written not by one chemist, but THREE chemistry professors with specific, complimentary research and teaching areas. David W. Ball’s specialty is physical chemistry, John W. Hill’s is organic chemistry, and finally, Rhonda J. Scott’s background is in enzyme and peptide chemistry. These three authors have the expertise to identify and present only the most important material for students to learn in the GOB Chemistry course.
Saylor Foundation URL: https://saylordotorg.github.io/text_the-basics-of-general-organic-and-biological-chemistry/
This course focuses on the interaction of chemical engineering, biochemistry, and microbiology. Mathematical representations of microbial systems are featured among lecture topics. Kinetics of growth, death, and metabolism are also covered. Continuous fermentation, agitation, mass transfer, and scale-up in fermentation systems, and enzyme technology round out the subject material.
Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and compounds, such as cellular makeup, that bring about life in organisms. This course will look at how these formed biomolecules interact and produce many of life's necessary processes. Also it will look at the most commonly used techniques in biochemistry research. Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to: recognize and describe the structure of the following basic biomolecules: nucleic acids, amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates; diagram how these basic biomolecules are used as building blocks for more complex biomolecules; differentiate between reactions that create biomolecules; describe how these biomolecules are used in specific cellular pathways and processes; analyze how feedback from one pathway influences other pathways; explain how energy is utilized by a cell; indicate how biomolecules and pathways are regulated; describe how enzymes play a key role in catalysis; assess which biochemical technique should be used to study a given biochemical problem. (Biology 401; See also: Chemistry 109)
This is an introductory course in biochemistry, designed for both biology and chemical engineering majors.
A consistent theme in this course is the development of a quantitative understanding of the interactions of biological molecules from a structural, thermodynamic, and molecular dynamic point of view. A molecular simulation environment provides the opportunity for you to explore the effect of molecular interactions on the biochemical properties of systems. Topics covered include: Protein Function, Structure and Function of Carbohydrates, Lipids and Biological Membranes, Metabolism, Nucleic and Acid and Biochemistry.
" The course, which spans two thirds of a semester, provides students with a research-inspired laboratory experience that introduces standard biochemical techniques in the context of investigating a current and exciting research topic, acquired resistance to the cancer drug Gleevec. Techniques include protein expression, purification, and gel analysis, PCR, site-directed mutagenesis, kinase activity assays, and protein structure viewing. This class is part of the new laboratory curriculum in the MIT Department of Chemistry. Undergraduate Research-Inspired Experimental Chemistry Alternatives (URIECA) introduces students to cutting edge research topics in a modular format. Acknowledgments Development of this course was funded through an HHMI Professors grant to Professor Catherine L. Drennan."
Considers the process of neurotransmission, especially chemicals used in the brain and elsewhere to carry signals from nerve terminals to the structures they innervate. Focuses on monoamine transmitters (acetylcholine; serotonin; dopamine and norepinephrine); also examines amino acid and peptide transmitters and neuromodulators like adenosine. Macromolecules that mediate neurotransmitter synthesis, release, inactivation, and receptor-mediated actions are discussed, as well as factors that regulate their activity and the second-messenger systems they control.
" This course is designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current research around sulfur biogeochemistry and astrobiology."